Inscription year 2014 Country Vietnam



The Trang An Landscape Complex is an outstanding example of limestone karst scenery in northeast Vietnam. The property’s inscription as a World Heritage Site under both natural and cultural criteria is supported by the evidence that the property’s dynamic topography has led to an equally dynamic and evolving local culture. In addition to this, the property is one of the few sites in Southeast Asia that has substantial evidence over a broad timeframe to showcase this cultural development. The property is of outstanding universal value as a site of exceptional aesthetic appeal, of geological interest and cultural history.




Trang An Landscape Complex


2014: Inscribed on the World Heritage List under Cultural Criterion v and Natural Criteria vii and viii.


The UNESCO World Heritage Committee adopted the following Statement of Outstanding Universal Value at the time of inscription:

Brief Synthesis

Located in Ninh Binh Province of North Vietnam, at the southern edge of the Red River delta about 90 km southeast of Hanoi, the Trang An Landscape Complex (Trang An) is a mixed cultural and natural property contained mostly within three protected areas, the Hoa Lu Ancient Capital and the Trang An-Tam Coc-Bich Dong Scenic Area, both of which are declared as special national monuments, and the Hoa Lu Special-Use Primary Forest. The property covers an area of 6,172 ha within the Trang An limestone massif, and it is surrounded by a buffer zone of 6,628 ha, mostly comprising paddy rice fields. Trang An is administered by the Ninh Binh Provincial People's Committee on behalf of the Government of Vietnam and managed by the Trang An Landscape Complex Management Board. Although there are some 14,000 residents, mostly families of subsistence farmers, much of the property is uninhabited and in a natural state without any adverse affects on the natural and cultural values from human activities and about 21,000 residents in the buffer zone.

Trang An exhibits an outstanding humid tropical tower karst landscape in the final stages of geomorphic evolution, and is of global geological significance. It is composed of a wide range of classical karst landforms, including spectacular cones and towers of several types surrounded by a network of closed depressions and valleys whose extensive wetlands are inter-connected by an intricate system of subterranean waterways. Formed by the interaction of some major regional tectonic structures, the area is unique in having been invaded and reworked by the sea several times in the recent geological past but is now emergent on land. Landform development over a period of more than five million years has produced a scenic landscape of extraordinary beauty with exceptional aesthetic qualities - a blend of towering cliff-bounded mountains draped in natural rain forest, surrounded by huge and deeply developed internal basins whose clear and quietly flowing waters are connected through a myriad of underground streams and caverns, many of which are navigable by small sampans carrying tourists. The enveloping wilderness conveys a wonderful sense of tranquillity, serenity and security for the many visitors. Rich archaeological deposits in caves reveal a regionally significant continuous sequence of human occupation and utilization of the area spanning more than 30,000 years. There is convincing evidence of the ways in which these early human groups adapted to the changing landscapes of the massif and the surrounding lowlands from the height of the last glacial and through the tumultuous transformations at the end of the glacial period - some of the most extreme climatic and geographical changes in the planet's recent history. Trang An is, therefore, an outstanding in situ archive of changing environmental conditions and people's responses to that change extending into the deep past.

Criterion (v)

Tràng An provides an exceptionally clear window into the interaction between people and environment in Southeast Asia spanning more than 30,000 years of human history from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene times. Extensive archaeological research and palaeo-environmental re-construction have revealed an unbroken sequence of early human activity and cultural development that is strongly associated with the recent geological evolution of the limestone karst massif, which has shifted dramatically between continental, insular and coastal settings. Trang An is, therefore, exceptionally and demonstrably well appointed as an in situ repository of information about human response to changing environmental conditions through some of the most turbulent climatic and geographical changes in the Earth's recent history, particularly those occurring at the end of and immediately after the late glacial. It is a time capsule of human environment interactions and one of the precious few in the Southeast Asia region that retains its original character and has not been subject to large-scale disturbance by later human, animal or other agency.

Criterion (vii)

The tower karst landscape of Trang An is among the most beautiful and awe-inspiring places of its kind anywhere on Earth. Dominating the landscape is a spectacular array of 200m-high, cliff-bounded limestone rock towers and conical hills. These are linked in places by sharp ridges enclosing deep depressions and valleys filled by waterways that are interconnected by a myriad of subterranean streams and caverns, some of which are navigable by small boats. Water-borne tourist visitors travelling through this wilderness experience an intimate connection with the environment and feel a sense of tranquillity and security. The dramatic mountains, mysterious caves, placid waters and sacred places of Trang An have enchanted and inspired people through countless generations. It is a place where nature and culture are inseparable, where culture encounters the wonder, mystery and magnificence of the natural world and is transformed by it.

Criterion (viii)

The Trang An Landscape Complex is outstanding among the world's limestone tower karst landscapes and unrivalled at a global scale in demonstrating the final stages of karst evolution under a humid tropical climate. Trang An is globally exceptional in displaying, clearly and comprehensively, a full array of characteristic humid tropical limestone karst landforms, including cones, towers, enclosed depressions (cockpits), interior draining valleys (poljes), karren, swamp notches, foot-caves, subterranean rivers and caves with speleothems. Of great scientific significance is the presence within a single landscape of transitional forms between “fengcong” karst, where cones are interconnected by sharp ridges, and “fenglin” karst, where classical towers stand isolated on an alluvial-mantled corrosion plain. No other place in the world demonstrates this transition in karst landforms better or more clearly than Trang An. The story of karst evolution, so well told at Trang An, is of even greater scientific significance because of evidence that sea level has varied here in the past. During the Pleistocene and Holocene, the margins of the Trang An massif were invaded and re-worked by the sea many times. Trang An is widely regarded as being of global importance for illustrating the interaction of karst evolution with changing sea levels and associated water-table levels.


The Trang An property is of sufficient size and scope to include the full array of its outstanding natural and cultural values and attributes. The boundary, which largely follows natural features, encompasses an entire limestone massif with a full range of classical landforms and associated geomorphic processes that display in remarkable detail the geological evolution of tower karst landscapes. All caves and other sites of archaeological significance are also included. There are no structures or other man-made elements obstructing the scenery or detracting from the aesthetic appeal of the area. A large buffer zone completely surrounds the nominated property and protects it effectively from any external disruption or undesirable impacts. Although the buffer zone and the property itself contain some inhabited areas, these primarily contain small villages and the farms and gardens tended by local people who also obtain food from the many rivers. At the southern end of the property there are some cement industries and stone craft villages located outside the buffer zone, but they are well separated from the property boundary and their impacts are recognized and carefully mitigated. There is a long history of protection of the area, and most of the property is essentially still in its natural state. The very rugged topography has isolated a large part of the area from human occupation and exploitation and, apart from the Hoa Lu ancient capital and the Tam Coc - Bich Dong tourist area, it has remained very little known until recently. The Trang An Scenic Area, and the Hoa Lu Special Use Primary Forest were mostly untouched until around 10 years ago when they were first comprehensively assessed and subsequently designated for protection and sustainable use. The greater part of the property is enclosed within three secure and officially designated protected areas, two of which are declared as national monuments.


Knowledge of the outstanding universal cultural value of the property is primarily based on archaeological evidence from intensive research on cave sites, which are still largely in their original condition – a rarity in Southeast Asia. The rich archaeological resources are predominantly midden accumulations containing shells, animal bones, stone tools, hearths, corded-ware pottery and occasionally human remains. The sites are yielding vivid palaeo-environmental records from analysis of pollen, seeds and plant tissue, and fauna, and from geomorphic evidence of ancient shorelines. These studies are supported by sophisticated modern techniques such as geo-chemical analysis of plant carbon isotopes and lipids, and shell oxygen isotopes, and the pioneering use in Southeast Asia of LiDAR (Light Distancing and Ranging) to create millimetre-accurate images of cave sites. All data are professionally mapped, collected, catalogued and analysed. The results of studies have been communicated through an impressive portfolio of published scientific papers, and are also reported in a definitive monograph on human adaptation in the Asian Palaeolithic, whose author has conducted seven years’ research in Trang An. 

Protection and Management Requirements

Trang An has been accorded the highest legal status for protection available in Viet Nam. The property is owned by the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and controlled by the Ninh Binh Provincial People’s Committee. Most of it is secured within three statutory protected areas. Six primary national laws and a series of Government decrees provide for: protection of cultural heritage and archaeological resources; biodiversity conservation; environmental protection; eco-tourism and other commercial activities; and administration and management. The property is managed by the Trang An Landscape Complex Management Board an independent agency with extensive decision-making powers, responsibilities and resources, and with close functional links to Government ministries, research institutes, and commercial and community stakeholders. Management is guided by a comprehensive Government-approved and legally binding management plan, prepared with wide public consultation and support. The plan, which is modelled on the highest international standards, addresses all important factors affecting the property, and is effectively implemented by professional, well-resourced staff. Future management priorities include: completion of an archaeological research and site conservation plan, implementation of a tourism management sub-plan and ongoing education, training and awareness-raising.


Hoa Lu Ancient Capital: Unassigned
Trang An Coc - Bich Dong Scenic Area: Unassigned
Hoa Lu Special Use Primary Forest: Unassigned


Indochinese Rainforest (4.5.1)


The property is located within the Ninh Binh Province, adjacent to the South China Sea in the north of Viet Nam approximately 90km south of Hanoi. The central coordinates for the property are N 20o 15’ 24” E 105o 53’ 47”.


1962: The Hoa Lu Ancient Capital (314 ha) is inscribed as national heritage.

1994: Tam Coc-Bich Dong Scenic Area (350 ha) is created

2005: The Hoa Lu Special-Use Forest (3,375 ha) is designated by the Ninh Binh Provincial People’s Committee.

2011: Trang An Scenic Area (2,133 ha) is created

2012: Hoa Lu Ancient Capital and the joint Trang An – Tam Coc-Bich Dong Scenic Area join the list of the country’s first 23 Special National Heritage Sites.

2012: The Trang An Complex Management Board is officially created by the provincial government.

2014: The property is inscribed as a World Heritage Site under both natural and cultural criteria.


All land within the property is owned by the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and is controlled by the Ninh Binh Provincial People’s Committee.


The area of the property is 6,172 ha with an additional buffer zone of 6,079 ha.


The property is a mountainous area that extends in a northwest-southeast direction, lowering in altitude towards the south and southeast. The Bai Dinh karst hills, which rise to approximately 185 metres a.s.l. are found to the north of the property whilst to the south are the Tam-Son Ha and Tam Coc-Bich dong karst ranges which are slightly lower at 160 metres a.s.l. The region’s highest summit (246 metres a.s.l.) is located in the Truong Yen commune, southeast of the property.


The property’s landscape is the product of a deep dissection of relatively pure Lower Triassic limestone (Dong Giao Formation) that was originally deposited in shallow seas. The karst landscape contains iconic karstic towers that range in height from 187 metres in the northwest to 162 metres in the south. The majority of these structures are within the range of 150 to 200 metres above sea level (a.s.l.). Prolonged exposure to the humid-tropical environment has resulted in the formation of a broad array of positive karst features, ranging from cones, towers and ridges to negative karst features such as depressions and caverns. The weathering processes that form these landscapes are still in effect today, and the area is considered a good place to witness geological processes like dissolution, faulting, collapse and karstification. Trang An clearly displays the evolutionary development of fengcong karst (conical hills that are separated by intervening cockpits and are connected by sharp ridges and saddles) as well as fenglin karst (isolated steep sided karst towers that stand on alluvium mantled plains). The property’s transition between fengcong and fenglin is considered by many to be a textbook example and the best of its kind in the world.

The Trang An Landscape Complex and its buffer zone are both located in the Da River terrain, separated from the South China terrain to the north by the well-known Red River Fault and from the Indochina terrain by the Ma River Suture Zone. At these intersections the limestone is crushed, and due to a combination of water dissolution and corrosion a system of closed depressions gradually formed. To the northwest the valleys are connected by a system of water caves and partially submerged depressions. Caves usually develop along fault lines; these can be water caves which are permanently beneath the level of erosion or fossil caves which are higher up. The alluvial deposits in Trang An are predominantly of three origins: alluvial, alluvial-marine and marine, showcasing the dynamic topographical and tectonic history the property has been part of for millennia. Above these deposits, to a depth of around two metres, lies the Thai Binh Formation, the land surface and plains of today which surround the property. Like the alluvial deposits beneath it, the formation is composed from a variety of sources, but is of predominantly marine-swamp and alluvial-marine origins.


The property is located in the humid tropical region of Northern Vietnam. There are four distinct seasons, with the driest season being winter. The average annual temperature is in the range of 23oC to 26oC. This average temperature, down to around 20oC in the winter months, with the coldest months of January and February seeing values as low as 10oC and rises to the region of 30oC in the hottest months of July and August. The average annual precipitation is 2000 mm of rainfall per annum, with between 128 to 160 rainfall days a year. The majority of the rainfall (~\~~85%) occurs in the six months of the rainy season (May to October).


Analysis of the property’s vegetation is limited. There are an estimated 577 floral species within the property, of which the vast majority are Magnoliophyta (Angiosperms). The most abundant class of flora are the Magnoliopsida. Among the property’s recorded species are 10 species which are listed in Vietnam’s Red Book. The most threatened of these in the country are Colona poilanei and Stemona saxorum. There have also been seven species recorded in Vietnam for the first time. These plants span six genera and highlight that the biological value of the property. Arboreal species constitute approximately 16% of the property’s total flora, with the 92 tree species containing several rare woods such as Indian mahogany Chukrasia tabularis and trees of high economic value such as Burretiodendron tonkinense (EN) (IUCN Red List, 2015). Around 310 species of medicinal plant have been recorded in the property, for example Stephania spp. and Lonicera spp., which are mostly for traditional Chinese medicines to treat ailments such as arthritis and skin diseases.

Karst landscapes have been known to be very speciose habitats, with the gulleys containing deep enough soils for dipterocarps whilst the thinner soils of rock faces are usually colonised by herbaceous species such as aroids, balsams and begonias) (Clements et al., 2006). Karst areas are by their nature very complex to sample which makes assessing floral diversity in these areas difficult. The nearby Cuc Phuong National Park has been shown to contain 69% of all Vietnam’s recorded botanical families (Rugendyke & Son, 2005), indicating that the Trang An Landscape Complex could similarly be an important area for botanical diversity.


Information on the faunal assemblages in the property is extremely poor. However, the wider scientific literature suggests that Vietnamese karst landscapes are important habitats for a diverse and unique fauna. Indeed, the fact that the karst landforms are understudied emphasises their potential to harbour species currently unknown to science (Musser et al., 2006).

Sodhi et al., (2004) argue that 42% of Southeast Asian biodiversity could be lost by 2100, which is perhaps unsurprising when considering the level of habitat change experienced in the region in recent years (Sodhi et al., 2010). Amongst Southeast Asian habitats karst regions possess particularly high species diversity and levels of endemism (Clements et al., 2006), in part because of the highly dynamic topography of karst landscapes. Bats can utilise the many caves as roosting sites, which is of considerable importance for the property’s species richness as bats constitute around a third of Vietnam’s mammals. Secondary forest can also support high assemblages of bat species (Furey, Mackie & Racey, 2010) suggesting that the property could harbour a significant proportion of bat species. Vietnam’s forested landscapes are also critical for primate species, such as gibbons (Hylobates spp.) and leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus spp.) (Hill, 1999). Karst scenery can also support novel assemblages of invertebrates and birds, especially in the cave habitats (Clements et al., 2006). In the nearby Cuc Phuong National Park over 8000 species of invertebrates and over 250 species of vertebrates have been identified (Rugendyke & Son, 2005), emphasising the importance to undertake a thorough study in the Trang An Landscape Complex.


The Trang An Landscape Complex is an outstanding example of limestone karst scenery in northeast Vietnam. The property’s inscription as a World Heritage Site under both natural and cultural criteria is supported by the evidence that the property’s dynamic topography has led to an equally dynamic and evolving local culture. In addition to this, the property is one of the few sites in Southeast Asia that has substantial evidence over a broad timeframe to showcase this cultural development. The property is of outstanding universal value as a site of exceptional aesthetic appeal, of geological interest and cultural history.


Trang An is one of the best places in Southeast Asia to study people’s interaction with the natural landscape and their adaptation to environmental changes over millennia. The property contains one of the longest, most securely dated, and thoroughly studied sequences of human activity in Vietnam, including two of the oldest known archaeological sites in the country. The available evidence and recorded history indicate that human activity has been present in the property from the late Pleistocene to the Early-Middle Holocene. The property therefore provides information on local populations from around 31,000 BC to around 800 AD. These populations experienced dramatic changes between the height of the last glacial to the end of the glacial period. In recent geological history the property has oscillated between riverine wetlands, swamps, estuaries and coastal marine conditions. Archaeological evidence would suggest that early human use of the Trang An landscape was seasonal. It likely occurred in the wet season which was when there was the highest availability of a staple food source: land snails. It is thought that hunting was opportunistic and that mammals were eaten only occasionally. Tools were predominantly used from the local limestone and there is evidence of temporary dwellings as far back as 10,000 BC. The paucity of sites with good evidence for this anthropogenic development in Southeast Asia singles the property out as an outstanding area to study the co-evolution of previous inhabitants to environmental flux. In the period between 7 and 4 millennia ago the Trang An landscape continued to be inhabited by people as shown by archaeological evidence in Hang Moi, Ong Hay and Da Cho caves. Living in caves remained a characteristic of the local residents for millennia; however, habitation gradually diversified into rock-shelters as well. Similarly tools diversified leading to a wider array of human made objects, especially pottery. In the next few millennia, it is thought that the various communities around the property developed and evolved in accordance with the habitats around them, for example changing their diets to be more based on seafood.

Two of the cultural highlights found within the property are the Hoa Lu Ancient Capital: a 314 ha site comprising a number of classified and inventoried relics of high historical importance and Trang An – Tam Coc – Bich Dong. In addition to these two areas there are 21 recognised national relics, spanning from temples and pagodas to caves and gardens and 18 provincial relics which are mostly communal and worshipping houses.


As of February 2012 there were 14,383 residents within the core zone of the property with a further 21,209 inhabitants within the buffer zone. The population, which largely resides within small villages and hamlets is thought to be stable and is therefore not considered to be a significant threat to the integrity of the property. The Ninh Binh Provincial People’s committee is even working on a resettlement programme to move people from the property’s core area to the buffer zone. A survey of 500 households in the property and buffer zone during the nomination period highlighted that 90% of people surveyed were supportive of the site being inscribed as a World Heritage Site, however, these residents were not adequately aware of the need for environmental protection and changes in lifestyle required to promote heritage conservation. The nearest urban area to the property is Ninh Binh city which is located around 8km to the east of the property and has a population of around 100,000 people.


Over 1 million visited Trang An in 2011, of which an estimated 30% were international visitors. This tourism is thought to create US\$ 7.1 million annually. Tourism is markedly seasonal, around one third of visitors visit during the three month period between February and April. Similarly, visitors are spatially unevenly distributed, with the majority of tourists focussing around the entrance and certain temples. The property has a total of 2,600 tourism boats (sampans) operated by local communities with 1,500 at Trang An, 1,000 at Tam Coc, 50 at Bich Dong and another 50 at the Milky Way Grotto. The carrying capacity of these boats is a potential issue for future tourist management, as on national holidays and festivals up to 10,000 people can visit the property in one day. The diversification of tourist activities to include buffalo carts, study tours, home-stays as well as cultural activities enables the property to facilitate higher numbers of tourists more sustainably. A tourism management plan for the property was under creation at the time of nomination, and one of the main objectives was to stagger the visitors over the entire span of the year thereby reducing the intensity of negative tourist impacts. With regard to visitor facilities, tourist accommodation within the property is limited to several eco-tourist resorts, home-stays, and small private guest houses. At each of the property’s main four gateways into the property there are visitor facilities such as vehicle parking facilities, toilets, visitor centres and shops. Walking trails are presently very limited but are set to be expanded in coming years. There are plans to significantly expand the visitor facilities at the property, especially in terms of exhibitions and interpretation centres, as well as publication and information materials.


Trang An remains one of the most studied areas in Viet Nam for ageing the development of karst. There is a small guesthouse in the Trang An sector which has a work room for scientists to undertake research in the property. Additionally, there is a private lodge within the property, with around 50 guest rooms which is devoted to bird-watching and other eco-tourist related activities. Currently there is no museum or exhibition house in the property for securing and displaying artefacts from within the property. Most artefacts of academic interest are kept on site at Hoa Lu Ancient Capital or in a warehouse near Tran Temple which is used for study and classification purposes. Much research has already been undertaken within Trang An, particularly of an archaeological nature, with collaboration links with multiple organisations such as Vietnam’s Institute of Archaeology and the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. Further collaboration and research is included in the management plan’s property objectives.


The guiding management principle of the property is that tourism management should provide and enhance opportunities for people to visit the World Heritage Site. The main management objectives include the following goals: the involvement of local residents and local communities; capacity building; the preservation, restoration and promotion of the Hoa Lu Ancient Capital relics as well as further scientific research. The management plan is renewed every five years, with the current plan being implemented until 2018. The vast majority of the site is protected by various levels of protective legislation, varying from provincial to international. The principal national law which protects the property is the 2001 Law on Cultural Heritage which necessitates the protection and promotion of cultural values. There are also laws to protect the property’s natural heritage such as the Law on Forest Protection and Development and the Law on Environmental Protection. These laws dictate quite explicitly which activities are permitted in the property, e.g. the grazing of cattle is forbidden in the Hoa Lu Special-Use Forest, as is exploiting tree resources or utilising soil and stone materials for construction purposes. The active management of the property lies within the jurisdictional remit set down by these laws, and in conjunction with the objectives of the management plan, set out a clear pathway of best practice management to maximise tourism and research without accruing significant detrimental impacts.


The core of the property is predominantly still in a natural condition. There have been considerable changes to some areas of the property in recent years ranging from highway development and village development to communication infrastructure and agriculture. One of the greatest threats to the property comes from inadequately planned and managed tourism as well as the associated tourism infrastructure. The high quality of the Lower Triassic limestone has meant that limestone quarrying for cement or for ornamental sculptures is a well established local industry. Quarry areas have been excluded from the property and the buffer zone has been modified to ensure any possibility of quarrying in the buffer zone is similarly excluded. There are four rivers which surround the property. The risk of water pollution from these water sources is considered minimal as there is a net outflow of water from the property. Also associated with the rivers is the activity of dredging, which occurs for maintenance purposes and is not considered a high level management constraint. With regard to biotic pressures, the presence of domestic goats is a threat to natural habitats and species.


As of 2014 there were 57 employees at the property under the property’s Management Board. The majority of the staff have achieved university degrees to at least an undergraduate level with the remaining staff holding various other academic achievements. These employees take positions varying from the Board of Directors to the various divisions of the property, such as the Environmental Management Division.

The Xan Truong enterprise has been responsible for managing tourism in the property for the last 70 years. Amongst this organisation there are five employees in the ticket office staff, 11 staff under the business team and 15 rangers or guards. By far the largest source of employment within the property is as a tourist boat operator, which employs around 1,500 people from the local Truong Yen and Ninh Xuan communes working with the tourist boats.


Past funding has totalled more than US\$ 130 million, most of which has been used on restoring and improving the Trang An complex. The State Party hopes that future funding will be in the region of 300 billion VBD (US\$ 14.2 million) per year. This sum would be sufficient to effectively implement all of the currently planned and anticipated future protection and management activities. It is expected that these funds will be sourced predominantly from revenue generated from tourism and visitor facilities (estimated at US\$ 7.1 million) per year. In addition to this, national and provincial government contributions are hoped to bring US\$ 4.8 million a year, voluntary contributions a further US\$ 1.9 million and lastly international sources US\$ 0.47 million a year.


Trang An Landscape Complex Management Board, Tan Thanh Ward, Ninh Binh City, Ninh Binh Province, Viet Nam


The principal sources for the above information were the original nomination for World Heritage status, the IUCN evaluation reports and the site’s management plan.

Clements, R., Sodhi, N. S., Schilthuizen, M., & Ng, P. K. L. (2006). Limestone Karsts of Southeast Asia: Imperiled Arks of Biodiversity. BioScience, 56 (9), 733. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[733:LKOSAI]2.0.CO;2

Furey, N. M., Mackie, I. J., & Racey, P. A. (2010). Bat diversity in Vietnamese limestone karst areas and the implications of forest degradation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19, 1821–1838. doi:10.1007/s10531-010-9806-0

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 11 February 2015

Musser, G. G., Lunde, D. P., & Son, N. T. (2006). Description of a New Genus and Species of Rodent (Murinae, Muridae, Rodentia) from the Tower Karst Region of Northeastern Vietnam. American Museum Novitates, 3517 (3517), 1. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2006)3517[1:DOANGA]2.0.CO;2

Rugendyke, B., & Son, N. T. (2005). Conservation costs: Nature-based tourism as development at Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 46 (2), 185–200. Retrieved from

Sodhi, N. S., Koh, L. P., Brook, B. W., & Ng, P. K. L. (2004). Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19 (12), 654–660.

Sodhi, N. S., Posa, M. R. C., Lee, T. M., Bickford, D., Koh, L. P., & Brook, B. W. (2010). The state and conservation of Southeast Asian biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19, 317–328. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9607-5


January, 2015.